# 2023/2024 WAEC Syllabus for Physics (Part 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5)

Filed in Education on March 12, 2023

To be considered a graduate of any secondary school in any of the West African countries, you must have written the WASSCE conducted by the West African Examination Council (WAEC) and passed it.

Each student is assessed based on the subjects he/she is offered in school, and for each subject, there is a syllabus that should be followed concordantly because questions for each subject are set according to the topics written on the syllabus.

Here is the syllabus for the 2023/2024 Physics examination.

The examination, however, will be divided into three papers, Papers 1, 2, and 3, all of which must be taken.

Papers 1 and 2 will be taken in one sitting, while paper three will be a practical test for school candidates or an alternative to a practical work paper for private candidates.

#### WAEC Physics Syllabus

##### Part 1
• Interaction of Matter, Space & Time
• Concepts of matter
• Fundamental and derived quantities and units
• Fundamental quantities and units
• Derived quantities and units
• Position, distance, and displacement.
• Concept of position as a location of point-rectangular coordinates.
• Measurement of distance
• Concept of direction as a way of locating a point–bearing
• The distinction between distance and displacement
• Mass and weight
• The distinction between mass and weight
• Time
• Concept of time as an interval between physical events
• Measurement of time
• Fluid at rest
• Volume, density, and relative density
• Pressure in fluids
• Equilibrium of bodies
• Archimedes’ principle
• Law of flotation
• Motion
• Types of motion: Random, rectilinear, translational, Rotational, circular, orbital, spin, Oscillatory.
• Relative motion
• Cause of motion
• Types of force:
• Contact force
• Non-contact force (field force)
• Solid friction
• Viscosity (friction in fluids)
• Simple ideas of circular motion
• Speed and velocity
• Concept of speed is a change of distance with time
• Concept of velocity as a change of displacement with time
• Uniform/non-uniform speed/velocity
• Distance/displacement-time graph
• Rectilinear acceleration
• Concept of Acceleration/deceleration as increase/decrease in velocity with time.
• Uniform/non-uniform acceleration
• Velocity-time graph
• Equations of motion with constant acceleration; Motion under gravity is a special case.
• Scalars and vectors
• Concept of scalars as physical quantities with magnitude and no direction
• Concept of vectors as physical quantities with both magnitude and direction.
• Vector representation
• Resolution of vectors
• Resultant velocity using vector representation.
• Equilibrium of forces
• Principle of moments
• Conditions for the equilibrium of rigid bodies under the action of parallel and non-parallel forces.
• Centre of gravity and stability
• Simple harmonic motion
• Illustration, explanation, and definition of simple harmonic motion (S.H.M)
• Speed and acceleration of S.H.M.
• Period, frequency, and amplitude of a body executing S.H.M.
• Energy of S.H.M
• Forced vibration and resonance
• Newton’s laws of motion:
• First Law: Inertia of rest and inertia of motion
• Second Law: Force, acceleration, momentum, and impulse
• Third Law: Action and reaction
##### Part 2
• Energy: Mechanical and Heat
• Energy
• Forms of energy
• World energy resources
• Conservation of energy.
• Work, Energy, and Power
• Concept of work as a measure of energy transfer
• The concept of energy is the capability to do work
• Work done in a gravitational field.
• Types of mechanical energy
• Potential energy (P.E.)
• Kinetic energy (K.E)
• Conservation of mechanical energy.
• The concept of power is the time rate of doing work.
• Application of mechanical energy machines.
• Levers, pulleys, inclined plane, wedge, screw, wheel and axle, gears.
• Heat Energy
• Temperature and its measurement
• Effects of heat on matter e.g
• Rise in temperature
• Change of phase state
• Expansion
• Change of resistance
• Thermal expansion – Linear, area, and volume expansivities
• Heat transfer Condition, convention, and radiation.
• The gas laws-Boyle’s law Charles’ law, pressure law, and general gas law
• Measurement of heat energy:
• Concept of heat capacity
• Specific heat capacity.
• Latent heat
• Concept of latent heat
• Melting point and boiling Point
• Specific latent heat of fusion and vaporization
• Evaporation and boiling
• Vapour and vapour pressure
• Humidity, relative humidity, and dew point
• Humidity and the weather
##### Part 3
• Waves
• Production and propagation of waves
• Production and propagation of mechanical waves
• Pulsating system: Energy transmitted with definite speed, frequency, and wavelength.
• Waveform
• Mathematical relationship connecting frequency (f), wavelength(), period (T) and velocity (v)
• Types of waves
• Transverse and longitudinal
• Mathematical representation of wave motion.
• Properties of waves: Reflection, refraction, diffraction, Interference, superposition of progressive waves producing standing stationary waves
• Light waves
• Sources of light
• Rectilinear propagation of light
• Reflection of light at the plane surface: plane mirror
• Reflection of light at curved surfaces: concave and convex mirrors
• Refraction of light at plane surfaces: rectangular glass prism (block) and triangular prism.
• Refraction of light at curved surfaces: Converging and diverging lenses
• Application of lenses in optical instruments.
• Dispersion of white light by a triangular glass prism.
• Electromagnetic waves: Types of radiation in electromagnetic Spectrum
• Sound Waves
• Sources of sound
• Transmission of sound waves
• Speed of sound in solid, liquid, and air
• Echoes and reverberation
• Noise and music
• Characteristics of sound
• Vibration in strings
• Forced vibration
• Resonance
• Harmonies and overtones
• The vibration of air in the pipe – open and closed pipes
##### Part 4
• Fields
• Description property of fields.
• Concept of fields: Gravitational, electric, and Magnetic
• Properties of a force field
• Gravitational field
• Acceleration due to gravity, (g)
• The gravitational force between two masses: Newton’s law of gravitation
• Gravitational potential and escape velocity.
• Electric Field
• Electrostatics
• Production of electric charges
• Types of distribution of charges
• Storage of charges
• Electric lines of force
• The electric force between point charges: Coulomb’s law
• Concepts of the electric field, electric field intensity (potential gradient), and electric potential.
• Capacitance: Definition, arrangement, and application
• Current electricity
• Production of electric current from primary and secondary cells
• Potential difference and electric current
• Electric circuit
• Electric conduction through materials
• Electric energy and power
• Shunt and multiplier
• Resistivity and Conductivity
• Measurement of electric current, potential difference, resistance, e.m.f. and internal resistance of a cell.
• Magnetic field
• Properties of magnets and magnetic materials.
• Magnetization and demagnetization.
• Concept of magnetic field
• Magnetic force on:
• a current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field;
• between two parallel current-carrying conductors
• Use of electromagnets
• The earth’s magnetic field
• Magnetic force on a moving charged particle
• Electromagnetic field
• Concept of electromagnetic field
• Shunt and multiplier
• Resistivity and Conductivity
• Measurement of electric current, potential difference, resistance, e.m.f. and internal resistance of a cell.
• Magnetic field
• Properties of magnets and magnetic materials.
• Magnetization and demagnetization.
• Concept of magnetic field
• Magnetic force on:
• A current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field;
• Between two parallel current-carrying conductors
• Use of electromagnets
• The earth’s magnetic field
• Magnetic force on a moving charged particle
• Electromagnetic field
• Concept of electromagnetic field
• Electromagnetic induction
• Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law, and the motor-generator effect
• Inductance
• Eddy currents
• Power transmission and distribution
• Simple a.c. circuits
• Graphical representation of e.m.f and current in an a.c. circuit.
• Peak and r..m.s. values
• A series circuit containing a resistor, inductor, and capacitor
• Reactance and impedance
• Vector diagrams
• Resonance in an A.C, circuit
• Power in an A.C. circuit
##### Part 5
• Atomic and Nuclear Physics
• Structure of the atom
• Models of the atom
• Energy quantization
• Photoelectric effect
• Thermionic emission
• X-rays
• Structure of the nucleus
• Composition of the nucleus
• Radioactivity – Natural and artificial
• Nuclear reactions – Fusion and Fission